In this section you will find interesting facts and anecdotes about the life and works of the philosophers, it is definitely a section less "demanding" of the other, but equally important to understand how great works are born in circumstances rather modest and, above all, as the philosophers, too often represented imperturbable and a million miles from reality, it is instead in every way men among men.
Did you know that ...
In his book "The philosophers: intimate life" (Cortina, Milano 2005) - book that is set up as a huge collector of philosophical anecdotes - Pierre Riffard compiles a ranking curious: what was the first philosopher to be salaried? Protagoras. And the poorest? Marx. The richest? Seneca. The more in love? Auguste Comte. The most misogynist? Schopenhauer. The most multilingual? Pico della Mirandola and Spinoza tied. The longest? Gorgias (lived for 108 years).
The real name of Plato is Aristocles It was long debated the meaning of the nickname Plato it must definitely reconnected after greek platus, which means large. Some argue that it should be attributed to the style of Plato, wide and smooth; there are those who say that it refers to his forehead particularly spacious; Finally, some believe that it is a nickname given to him by his teacher of gymnastics in virtue of the width of his shoulders and the strength of the body.
According to tradition, when in Athens said the current political anti-Macedonian, Aristotle, accused of blasphemy because of its difficult relations with the Macedonian monarchy, he has uttered the famous words: "I do not want the Athenians commit a second crime against philosophy ", alluding of course to the events of Socrates.
A Newton would have floated the idea of universal gravitation when, while he was sleeping peacefully under a tree, an apple fell on his head.
Kant was greedy cheese. In later life, his doctor advised him not to eat too much and, for this reason, the butler of the Kant kept hidden cheese: the result was that Kant dismissed the butler!
The Stoics did not admit an intermediate state between knowing and not knowing, but also between being virtuous and not to be: so, they said, between killing a man and killing a chicken there is no difference, it is equally an evil.
A rather curious episode about the name of the philosopher Gunther Anders. Gunther Anders fact is nothing more than the name of Gunther Strern; the fact dates back to the youth of the author, when a publisher told him to choose a different name to publish his works, for it was a surname typically jew and now they were increasingly asserting Nazi ideas. So the young Gunther chose as their surname "different" (Anders in German means "different").
Legend has it that the ancient Empedocles has thrown nell'Etna to prove his immortality and fell down, Etna has regurgitated his shoes.
In 1932, Ernst Bloch and Walter Benjamin volunteer to experiments with results sull'haschisch really funny: Benjamin believed to participate in a conversation between Dante and Petrarch and starts talking in Italian; Bloch instead thinks Rasputin.
About Thales, Plato tells ("Theaetetus", 174 a) that, as he walked with her eyes looking upward to contemplate heavenly things, fell into a well and was laughed at by a servant.
Plotinus wanted to build, in Campania, a true "city of philosophers", calling it "Platonopoli".
Against a man who claimed that there was no movement, Diogenes of Sinope argued in a unique way: he got up and started walking.
Ernst Bloch, when he was asked in an interview about philosophy to tighten and reduce exposure times, pointed out that it had been invented the quick-coffee, but not the quick-philosophy.
Forced to recant by the Holy Office, to admit the falsity of his theories and to recognize the validity of the Ptolemaic geocentric system, Galileo, which was released by the court, is said to have murmured, referring to the earth, "yet it moves."
In his "Lectures on the Philosophy of History", Hegel argues that history is the butcher's bench on which are smashed to pieces the hopes, the dreams, the expectations of the people and men.
Locke, before embarking on the road of philosophy, took the medicine, but the results were inconclusive: in fact, when he worked the grandfather of Shaftesbury philosopher not sewed the wound, so that the patient remained with the open wound.
Throughout his life, as well as philosopher, Wittgenstein was a primary school teacher and gardener in a convent of nuns.
Leibniz was very respectful of nature and of all living things: to the point that, after making his observations on insects, they reported in the exact place from which he had taken them!
The sister of Wittgenstein, to distract his brother by the thought of suicide, commissioned architects to build him a new home following the instructions of the philosopher; who she was so obsessed with the idea of perfection that eventually the poor architects refused the assignment.
Descartes was accused of having copied his "cogito ergo sum" from "you fallor sum" of Augustine.
Seneca had been master of the young Nero, on the wishes of the ambitious mother of these, Agrippina. In 59 though, especially after the murder of Agrippina by Nero, the relations between the two were showing their cracks and Seneca retired from public life. In 65, Nero Seneca believed involved in the conspiracy of the Pisoni and told him to take his own life. True to his stoic discipline, the philosopher cut the arteries of the wrists and ankles and immersed in a tub of hot water, however inviting the scribe to stay close and to immortalize the event.
With Peter of Spain for the first time a philosopher becomes Pope (with the name of John XXI); not only is the only pope of which Dante in the "Divine Comedy" ("Paradise", XII, 135), praises.
Alcmaeon was the first philosopher of antiquity to understand that the most important organ of the human body is the brain.
Legend has it that Heidegger wrote in his log cabin in the Black Forest the third part of "Being and Time" and that, ultimatala, sent it to Jaspers in order to give him an opinion on: they would press for not having understood anything, it was so complicated text and, therefore, Heidegger would have thrown in the fireplace the manuscript.
There is a story on the critical induction, which, although originally conceived by Bertrand Russell (the story is quoted in The Problems of Philosophy), is commonly attributed, in its most elaborate form, in Karl Popper: it is the story of " turkey inductivist "(inductivist turkey). Popper describes this situation: there was a turkey at a farm which was brought food always at 9am. The turkey looked, then, that any day of the week, there was the sun or bad weather, the food was brought to him at the same time. From these repeated observations and identical in all weather conditions and that were common to all days of the week, when Turkey applied the inductive method formulated the following theory: "I give the food always at 9 am". However, on the eve of Christmas, the turkey ascertained at his own expense the dismantling of this rule: the turkey was killed and served at the table.
Lecturer at the beginning, Heidegger enthused pupils who followed his courses when he invented fortunate expression as "the world mondeggia" ("die Welt weltet") and "space spazieggia" ("Raum der räumt").
It is said that Descartes had lighting axes Cartesian seeing a pin drop while he was lying on his bed.
It is said that Hegel replaced his morning reading the Bible with the reading of the Gazette.
When Hume was able to have bowel cancer, he reordered his writings carefully, arranging the posthumous publication of some of them, and waited calmly death, which occurred in August of 1776.
Diogenes of Sinope once saw a child who drank into his hands and then threw away the bag the bowl, saying: "A boy gave me the lesson of simplicity."
The outbreak of the French Revolution, Hegel, Schelling and Hölderlin planted a tree, "tree of liberty", to signal their enthusiastic participation in that event epoch.
January 4 Isaac Newton (1642)
January 15 Pierre Joseph Proudhon (1809)
January 22 Francis Bacon (1561) / Antonio Gramsci (1891)
January 24 Wolff (1679)
January 27 Schelling (1775)
January 30 Francis Herbert Bradley (1846)
February 3 Simone Weil (1909)
February 4 Pareyson Louis (1918)
February 8 Martin Buber (1878)
February 11 Hans-Georg Gadamer (1900)
February 12 Charles Darwin (1809)
February 14 Copernicus (1473)
February 15 Galileo Galilei (1564) / Jeremy Bentham (1748)
February 22 Arthur Schopenhauer (1788)
February 23 Karl Jaspers (1883)
February 24 Pico della Mirandola (1463)
February 25 Benedetto Croce (1866)
February 27 Paul Ricoeur (1913)
March 1 Georg Simmel (1858)
March 12 Gabriele D'Annunzio (1863) / Berkeley (1685)
March 14 Albert Einstein (1879)
March 15 Cesare Beccaria (1738)
March 18 Bertrand Russell (1872)
March 21 Richard Mervyn Hare (1919)
March 26 Langshaw John Austin (1911)
March 31 Rene Descartes (1596)
April Emmanuel Mounier (1905)
April 8 Edmund Husserl (1859)
April 15 Leonardo da Vinci (1452)
April 20 Marco Aurelio (121)
April 22 Immanuel Kant (1724) / Lenin (1870)
April 26 Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889) / David Hume (1711)
April 27 Herbert Spencer (1820)
April 30 Felix Guattari (1930)
May 2 Umberto Galimberti (1942)
May 3 Niccolo Machiavelli (1469)
May 5 Karl Marx (1818) / Søren Kierkegaard (1813)
May 6 Sigmund Freud (1856)
May 9 Ortega y Gasset (1883)
May 11 Ludovico Geymonat (1908)
May 18 Bertrand Russell (1872)
May 19 Fichte (1762)
May 20 Socrates (469 BC)
May 21 Plato (427 BC)
May 29 Dear John (1875)
May 30 Mikhail Bakunin (1814)
June 5 Massimo Cacciari (1944)
June 19 Blaise Pascal (1623) / Piero Gobetti (1901)
June 21 Jean-Paul Sartre (1905)
June 23 Giambattista Vico (1668)
June 28 Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712)
July 1 Gottfried Leibniz (1646)
July 2 Antonio Labriola (1843)
July 15 Abbagnano Nicola (1901) / Walter Benjamin (1892) / Jacques Derrida (1930)
July 19 Herbert Marcuse (1898)
July 28 Karl Popper (1902) / Ernst Cassirer (1874)
July 31 Hilary Putnam (1926)
August 20 Rodolfo Mondolfo (1877)
August 27 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770)
August 28 Goethe (1749)
August 29 John Locke (1632)
September 9 Ugo Spirit (1896)
September 11 Theodor Wiesengrund Adorno (1903)
Feuerbach September 12 (1829)
September 26 Martin Heidegger (1889)
September 29 Miguel de Unamuno (1864)
September 30 Antonio Banfi (1886)
October 5 Denis Diderot (1713)
October 15 Friedrich Nietzsche (1844) / Michel Foucault (1926)
October 18 Henri Bergson (1859) / Norberto Bobbio (1909)
October 25 Max Stirner (1806)
October 27 Erasmus of Rotterdam (1469)
November 2 Maurice Blondel (1861)
November 7 Albert Camus (1867)
November 10 Martin Luther (1483)
November 18 Jacques Maritain (1882)
November 21 Voltaire (1694)
November 24 Baruch Spinoza (1632)
November 28 Friedrich Engels (1820)
December 7 Gabriel Marcel (1889)
ps: (by philosophy.net)
They were not made to live like brutes, but to follow virtue and conoscentia. (Dante, Inferno XXVI)
The oracle at Delphi Socrates: the truly wise person is one who knowing not to know continually seeks the truth.
"Know thyself" as the truth resides only within you. (Socrates)
An unexamined life is not worth living. (Socrates)
Not by wealth but by virtue born beauty. Research leads to truth. Injustice is not committed never even when it is received. For a good person can not happen anything wrong, neither in life nor in death, things that concern him are not neglected by God. But now it's time to go I to die and you to live instead. But who of us go to what is best is dark at all. (Socrates)
There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance. (Socrates)
If you had never seen the stars, and the sun, and the sky, none of the words that we said about the universe would never be pronounced. But now the vision of day and night, and the months and the years of the evolution, has created the number, and gave us a sense of time and the power to inquire into the nature of the universe; and from this source we took the philosophy, of which the greater good was not and never will be donated by the gods to mortal man. (Plato)
We can forgive a child who is afraid of the dark. The real tragedy of life is when men are afraid of the light. (Plato)
Love is a metaphor of philosophy because the man does not have the knowledge, but strives to get it; It may be able to approach it, but it is still a final conquest: the full knowledge is unattainable, something that can only belong to one God, what we humans can only rejoice and be content is to be lovers of wisdom ... Philosophers . (Plato)
"Who am I then, Diotima, who philosophise, if they are neither wise nor the ignorant?" "It 'clear even to a child now - he said - those who are in the middle between the two of them and that is also part Love. Wisdom, in fact, is part of the most beautiful things and Love is love of beauty, so it is necessary that both Love and philosopher, as a philosopher, is in the middle between the wise and the ignorant. " (Plato)
"Unfounded philosophy is nothing but the use of knowledge for the benefit of man" (Plato)
Who thinks it is necessary to philosophize must philosophize and those who think we should not philosophize must philosophize to prove that you should not philosophize; So you have to philosophize in any case or leave here, saying goodbye to life, because all the other things seem to be just talk and empty talk. (Aristotle)
The men, both in our time at first, began to philosophize because of wonder, because at first they wondered at the strange things that were at hand, and later, gradually, proceeding in the same way , faced more difficulties, such as complaints of the moon and the sun and the stars and the origin of the universe. (Aristotle)
The philosophy is useless, you will say; but know that just because it lacks the bond of servitude is the noblest know. (Aristotle)
Philosophy does not reject or prefer anyone shines in all. (Seneca)
Neither the young nor the old delay to philosophize is tired of philosophizing. It is neither too young nor too old for the health of the soul. Who says it has not yet reached the age of philosophizing or that age has passed, it is similar to those who say that happiness is not yet come or is already past age. (Epicurus)
In the case of other types of activities, do you gather the fruit only after having succeeded, after much effort, to become masters of matter. In the case of philosophy, however, knowledge and pleasure go together; because enjoyment is reached after studies, but studies and enjoyment go forward together. (Epicurus)
Cogito ergo sum.Penso therefore I am (Descartes)
There is nothing entirely within our power except our thoughts. (Descartes) The philosophy goes necessarily towards its sunset, that is towards science, but that is the way today's philosophy lives. Anyone can see that philosophy, worldwide, declines in scientific knowledge. (Severino)
The new opinions are always suspected, and usually contrasted, for no other reason except the fact that they are not already common (John Locke)
The death of Socrates and the crucifixion of Christ are part of the great traits of humanity. (Arthur Schopenhauer)
All that can be said can be said clearly, and what we can not talk, perhaps it would be better to remain silent rather than speak to vanvera.Infatti my work consists of two parts: what I wrote is more of everything I did not write that it is the most impostante. (Wittegenstein)
There is to be expected that kings philosophize or philosophers become kings, nor is it to desire it, because the possession of power corrupts the free judgment of reason. But that a king or a sovereign people do not leave to silence the class of philosophers, but let speak publicly, it is essential to one and the other for light on their business. (Kant)
Always act only according to that maxim that you may want to become universal law at the same time, considering humanity whether in your own person and in that of every alrto, always aiming ever as simple means. (Kant)
There is always a grain of madness in love, just as there is always a grain of logic in the madness. (Nietzesche)
Philosophy is a practice, not a theory: something you do, not something you say. " (Ermanno Bencivenga)
The greatness of man is measured on the basis of what they look for and the insistence with which he is seeking. (Heidegger)
When you teach, he teaches at the same time to doubt what you teach. (Ortega y Gasset)
The more we rise, the smaller we appear to those who can not fly. (Nietzsche)
Today an expert is someone who knows more and more about less and less, to know everything about anything. (Max Weber)
The experience of truth is given only in dialogue, in the dialectic of question and answer that feeds the circular movement of understanding. (Gadamer)
The trouble with the world is that the stupid are extra safe, and the intelligent are full of doubt. (B. Russell)
Seeketh Liberty, ch 'is how dear you know who life for her refuses. (Dante)
Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains. (Rousseau)
You can imagine philosophers as people who make extreme efforts to experience how high the 'man can rise. (Nietzsche)
You want to get real freedom? Make yourself a slave of philosophy. (Seneca)
Without an opponent virtue rots. (Seneca)
Wise to the whole Earth is open, because the home of a 'beautiful soul is the whole world. (Democritus)
The greatness of man is measured on the basis of what they look for and the insistence with which he is seeking. (Heidegger)
Human reason is beset by questions that can not reject, because they are assigned by the nature of reason itself, and which, however, can not even answer, because they are beyond all power of human reason. (Kant)
Death smiles at all; a man can not help but smile back. (Marco Aurelio)
Death should not be feared because when we are there and not there when she she there there we are. (Epicurus)
I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it. (Voltaire)
To discover the true objectivity of the world man must not think of the world as a part of himself, but he must feel himself as a part of the world. (Abbagnano)
There is nothing entirely within our power except our thoughts. (Descartes)
If a man starts with the certainties end with doubts; but if you are content to begin with doubts, come to an end at some certainty. (F.Bacone)
Our dreams and want to change the world. (Karl Popper)
There will be a good government only when philosophers become kings or kings become philosophers. (Plato)
Audaces fortuna iuvat. (Virgil)
Beauty in things exists in the mind which contemplates them. (Hume)
Remember that you are mortal born of nature and you've got a limited time, but with your thoughts on the nature risen six infinity and eternity, and have contemplated the things that are, that were and will be. (Metrodorus)
Everything is madness except the frolic. Everything is worthy of laughter except the laugh of all. (Leopardi)
Man needs of what has in it's worst to achieve what is best there is in him. (P. Coelho).
If a man is kind to a stranger, he shows to be a citizen of the world, and his heart is not an island, separated from the others, but a continent that brings them together. (Francis Bacon)
The dream is the theater where the dreamer is at once both the scene, the actor, the prompter, the stage manager, the manager, the author, the public and the critic. (Jung)
Who does not know the truth is only a fool, but he who, knowing her, calls her lie, it is a criminal. (B. Brecht)
An eye for an eye ... and the world goes blind. (Gandhi)
L 'man is a cable stretched between the beast and the superman. (Nietzsche)
An expert is one who knows more and more about less and less, to know everything about anything. (Max Weber)
Learn everything, then you will see that nothing is superfluous. (Hugh of St. Victor)
The heart has reasons that reason does not know. (Blaise Pascal)
Who thinks it is immortal, who does not think he dies. (Averroes)
The Church is exactly that against which Jesus preached and against which he taught his disciples to fight. (Nietzsche)
It means thinking beyond. (E. Bloch, "The Principle of Hope")
Maybe now the main goal is not to find out what we are, but to refuse what we are. We have to imagine and build what we could become. (M. Foucault)
The essence of optimism is not only to look beyond the present situation, but it is a life force, the power of hope when others resign themselves, the power to hold your head high when it seems that everything has failed, the strength to bear failures, a force that never leaves the future of their opponents, the future it claims for itself. (D. Bonhoeffer)
The camps are the laboratories where we experience the transformation of human nature [...]. Until now, the belief that everything is possible seems to have proved only that everything can be destroyed. But in their effort to put it into practice, totalitarian regimes have discovered, without knowing, that there are crimes that men can neither punish nor forgive. When the impossible has been made possible, has become the absolute evil, impunibile and unforgivable, that could not be understood and explained with evil motives of self-interest, greed, envy, resentment; and that the anger could not revenge, love bear, friendship forgive, the law punished. "(Hannah Arendt)