In this section you will find facts and anecdotes about the life and works of philosophers, it is certainly a section less "busy" than the others, but equally important to understand how great works are born into circumstances rather modest and, above all, as the philosophers too often represented unperturbed and a thousand miles away from reality, it is instead in all respects men among men.
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In his book "The philosophers: the intimate life" (Cortina, Milano 2005) - the book is set up as a huge collector of anecdotes, philosophical - Pierre Riffard compile a ranking curious: what was the first philosopher to be salaried? Protagoras. And the poor? Marx. The richest? Seneca. The more in love? Auguste Comte. The most misogynist? Schopenhauer. The most polyglot? Pico della Mirandola and Spinoza on an equal footing. The longest-serving? Gorgias (lived for 108 years).
The real name of Plato is Aristocles It was long debated the meaning of the nickname Plato it must certainly reconnected to the greek word Platus, which means large. Some argue that it should be attributed to the style of Plato, large and smooth; instead there are those who say that it is to be referred to his forehead very spacious, and finally, some believe that it is a nickname given to him by his teacher of gymnastics under the width of his shoulders and the strength of the body.
According to tradition, when in Athens said the current anti-Macedonian policy, Aristotle was accused of impiety because of his difficult relations with the Macedonian monarchy, he uttered the famous words: "I do not want the Athenians commit a second crime against philosophy ", referring of course to the events of Socrates.
A Newton would have floated the idea of universal gravitation when, while sleeping peacefully under a tree, an apple fell on his head.
Kant was greedy of cheese. In his old age, his doctor had advised him to avoid eating too much and, for this reason, Kant's butler kept him hidden cheese: the result was that Kant dismissed the butler!
The Stoics did not admit an intermediate state between knowing and not knowing, but also between being virtuous and not to be: well, they said, between killing a man and kill a chicken there is no difference, it is equally an evil deed.
An episode rather curious about the name of the philosopher Gunther Anders. In fact, Gunther Anders is nothing more than the name of Gunther Strern and the fact the author goes back to his youth, when a publisher told him to choose a different name to publish his works, since he was a jew and now typically surname were increasingly asserting Nazi ideas. So the young Gunther chose it as their surname "different" (in German Anders means "different").
Legend has it that the ancient Empedocles has thrown nell'Etna to prove their immortality, and that he fell down, Etna has regurgitated his shoes.
In 1932, Ernst Bloch and Walter Benjamin volunteer for experiments with outcomes sull'haschisch really funny: Benjamin believed to participate in an interview between Petrarch and Dante and starts talking in Italian; Bloch instead thought to be Rasputin.
About Thales, Plato says ("Theaetetus", 174), which, as he walked with his eyes turned upward to contemplate the reality of heaven, fell into a well and was laughed at by a servant.
Plotinus wanted to build, in Campania, a veritable "city of philosophers", calling it "Platonopoli."
Against a man who claimed that there was no movement, Diogenes of Sinope argued in a unique way: he stood up and began to walk.
Ernst Bloch, in an interview when asked about the philosophy to forge and to reduce the time of exposure, he pointed out that it had been invented the quick-maker, but not the quick-philosophy.
Forced to recant by the Inquisition, to admit the falsity of his theories and to recognize the validity of the Ptolemaic geocentric system, Galileo, which was released by the court, is said to have muttered, referring to the earth, "yet it moves."
In his "Lectures on the Philosophy of History," Hegel argues that history is the butcher's bench on which they are smashed to pieces the hopes, dreams, expectations of the people and of men.
Locke, before embarking on the road of philosophy, took the medicine, but the results were not very convincing: in fact, when the grandfather of the philosopher worked Shaftesbury not sewed the wound, so that the patient remained with the open wound.
In the course of his life, as well as a philosopher, Wittgenstein was a primary school teacher and a gardener in a convent of nuns.
Leibniz was very respectful of nature and of every living creature: so much so that, after making his observations on insects, brought them back in the exact spot from which he had taken them!
Wittgenstein's sister, to distract his brother by the thought of suicide, commissioned architects to build him a new home according to the instructions of the philosopher, who was so obsessed with perfection that eventually the poor architects refused the assignment.
Descartes was accused of having copied his "cogito ergo sum" from "is fallor sum" of Augustine.
Seneca had been a teacher of the young Nero, on the wishes of the ambitious mother of these, Agrippina. In 59 though, especially after the murder of Agrippina by Nero, the relationship between the two is their cracks and Seneca retired to private life. In 65, Nero, Seneca believed involved in the conspiracy of the Pisoni and told him to take his own life. True to his stoic discipline, the philosopher cut the arteries of the wrists and ankles and immersed in a tub of hot water, but by inviting the scribe to stay close and to perpetuate the event.
By Peter of Spain for the first time a philosopher becomes pope (with the name of John XXI), not only is the only pope to whom Dante in the "Divine Comedy" ("Paradise", XII, 135), praises.
Alcmaeon was the first philosopher of antiquity to understand that the most important organ of the human body is the brain.
Legend has it that Heidegger wrote in his log cabin in the Black Forest the third part of "Being and Time" and that ultimatala, sent it to Jaspers, so give him an opinion on these: they would press for not having understood nothing, it was so complicated text and, therefore, Heidegger would throw the manuscript in the fireplace.
There is a story on the critical induction, which, although originally designed by Bertrand Russell (the story is quoted in The Problems of Philosophy), is commonly attributed, in its most elaborate form, in Karl Popper: the story of the " inductivist turkey "(inductivist turkey). Popper describes this situation: there was a turkey on a farm which was always brought the food at 9 am. The turkey looked, therefore, that any day of the week, there was the sun or bad weather, the food was brought to him at the same time. From these observations, repeated and identical in all weather conditions and which were common to all days of the week, the turkey when he applied the inductive method formulated the following theory: "I give the food always at 9 am." However, on the eve of Christmas, the turkey ascertained at his own expense the disappearance of this rule: the turkey was killed and served at the table.
Lecturer at the beginning, Heidegger enthusiastic pupils who followed his courses when he invented fortunate expression as "the world mondeggia" ("die Welt weltet") and "space spazieggia" ("Raum der raumt").
It is said that Descartes had the lighting of the Cartesian axes seeing a fly while he was lying on his bed.
It is said that Hegel replaced his morning reading of the Bible by reading the Gazette.
When Hume was able to have a bowel cancer, he reorganized his writings carefully, preparing the posthumous publication of some of them, and waited calmly death, which occurred in August 1776.
Once Diogenes of Sinope, he saw a child who drank in the hollow of his hands and then threw the bag away from the bowl, saying: "A boy gave me a lesson in simplicity."
At the outbreak of the French Revolution, Hegel, Schelling and Hölderlin planted a tree, "the tree of liberty" to report their enthusiastic participation in this event momentous.
January 4 Isaac Newton (1642)
January 15 Pierre Joseph Proudhon (1809)
January 22 Francis Bacon (1561) / Antonio Gramsci (1891)
January 24 Wolff (1679)
January 27 Schelling (1775)
January 30 Francis Herbert Bradley (1846)
February 3 Simone Weil (1909)
February 4 Pareyson Louis (1918)
February 8 Martin Buber (1878)
February 11 Hans-Georg Gadamer (1900)
February 12 Charles Darwin (1809)
February 14 Copernicus (1473),
February 15 Galileo Galilei (1564) / Jeremy Bentham (1748)
February 22 Arthur Schopenhauer (1788)
February 23 Karl Jaspers (1883)
February 24 Pico della Mirandola (1463)
February 25 Benedetto Croce (1866)
February 27 Paul Ricoeur (1913)
March 1 Georg Simmel (1858)
March 12 Gabriele D'Annunzio (1863) / Berkeley (1685)
March 14th Albert Einstein (1879)
March 15 Cesare Beccaria (1738)
March 18 Bertrand Russell (1872)
March 21 Richard Mervyn Hare (1919)
March 26 John Langshaw Austin (1911)
March 31 René Descartes (1596)
April Emmanuel Mounier (1905)
April 8 Edmund Husserl (1859)
April 15 Leonardo da Vinci (1452)
April 20 Marcus Aurelius (121)
April 22 Immanuel Kant (1724) / Lenin (1870)
April 26 Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889) / David Hume (1711)
April 27 Herbert Spencer (1820)
April 30 Felix Guattari (1930)
May 2 Umberto Galimberti (1942)
May 3 Niccolò Machiavelli (1469)
May 5 Karl Marx (1818) / Søren Kierkegaard (1813)
May 6 Sigmund Freud (1856)
May 9 Ortega y Gasset (1883)
May 11 Geymonat Ludwig (1908)
May 18 Bertrand Russell (1872)
May 19 Fichte (1762)
May 20 Socrates (469 BC)
May 21 Plato (427 BC)
May 29 Dear John (1875)
May 30 Mikhail Bakunin (1814)
June 5, Massimo Cacciari (1944)
June 19 Blaise Pascal (1623) / Piero Gobetti (1901)
June 21 Jean-Paul Sartre (1905)
June 23 Giambattista Vico (1668)
June 28 Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712)
July 1 Gottfried Leibniz (1646)
July 2 Antonio Labriola (1843)
July 15 Abbagnano Nicola (1901) / Walter Benjamin (1892) / Jacques Derrida (1930)
July 19 Herbert Marcuse (1898)
July 28 Karl Popper (1902) / Ernst Cassirer (1874)
July 31 Hilary Putnam (1926)
August 20 Rodolfo Mondolfo (1877)
August 27 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770)
August 28 Goethe (1749)
August 29 John Locke (1632),
September 9 Ugo Spirito (1896)
September 11 Wiesengrund Theodor Adorno (1903)
September 12 Feuerbach (1829)
September 26 Martin Heidegger (1889)
September 29 Miguel de Unamuno (1864)
September 30 Antonio Banfi (1886)
October 5 Denis Diderot (1713)
October 15 Friedrich Nietzsche (1844) / Michel Foucault (1926)
October 18 Henri Bergson (1859) / Norberto Bobbio (1909)
October 25 Max Stirner (1806)
October 27 Erasmus of Rotterdam (1469)
November 2 Maurice Blondel (1861)
November 7 Albert Camus (1867)
November 10 Martin Luther (1483)
November 18 Jacques Maritain (1882)
November 21 Voltaire (1694)
November 24 Baruch Spinoza (1632);
November 28 Friedrich Engels (1820)
December 7 Gabriel Marcel (1889)
ps: (by philosophy.net)
You were not made to live like brutes, but to follow virtue and conoscentia. (Dante, Inferno XXVI)
The oracle at Delphi Socrates: the truly wise person is one who is always looking for knowing not to know the truth.
"Know thyself" as the only truth lies inside of you. (Socrates)
An unexamined life is not worth living. (Socrates)
Not from wealth but from virtue comes the beauty. Research leads to the truth. Injustice should not be committed ever even when it is received. For a good person can not happen anything wrong, neither in life nor in death, things that concern him are not neglected by God, but now it's time to go I to die and you to live instead. But those of us who go to what is best is obscure at all. (Socrates)
There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance. (Socrates)
If we had never seen the stars, and the sun and the sky, none of the words we've spoken about the universe would ever uttered. But now the sight of day and night, and the months and the years of the evolution, created the number, and gave us a conception of time and the power to inquire into the nature of the universe, and from this source we have drawn philosophy, of which the greater good was not and never will be donated by the gods to mortal man. (Plato)
We can forgive a child who is afraid of the dark. The real tragedy of life is when men are afraid of the light. (Plato)
Love is a metaphor for philosophy because man does not possess the knowledge, but she tries to get it; may be able to approach it, but it is still a final conquest: the full knowledge is unattainable, it is something that can only belong to God, what we humans can only rejoice and be content is to be lovers of wisdom ... Philosophers. (Plato)
"Who am I then, Diotima, who filosofano, if they are neither the wise nor the ignorant?" "It 's clear even to a child now - he said - they are the ones in the middle between the two of them and that is also part of Love. Wisdom, in fact, is one of the most beautiful things and love is love of beauty, so it is necessary that Love is a philosopher and as a philosopher, is in the middle between the wise and the ignorant. " (Plato)
"Unfounded philosophy is nothing but the use of knowledge for the benefit of man" (Plato)
Who do you think is necessary to philosophize is to philosophize and those who think we should not have to philosophize philosophize to prove that you should not philosophize, then one must philosophize in any case or leave from here, saying goodbye to life, because all other things seem to be just talk and empty talk. (Aristotle)
The men, both in our time from the beginning, they began to philosophize because of wonder, because at first they wondered at the strange things that were at hand, and later, gradually, proceeding in the same way , faced more difficulties, such as diseases of the moon and the sun and the stars and the origin of the universe. (Aristotle)
The philosophy is useless, you say, but know that just because it lacks the bond of servitude is the noblest know. (Aristotle)
The philosophy does not reject or prefer anyone shines at all. (Seneca)
Neither the young nor the old delay philosophizing philosophizing is tired. We are neither too young nor too old for the health of the soul. Who says it has not yet reached the age of philosophizing or that age has passed, it is similar to those who say that happiness is not yet come, or has already passed the age. (Epicurus)
In the case of other types of activities, he gathers the fruit only after we have succeeded, after much difficulty, to become masters of matter. In the case of philosophy, however, the knowledge and pleasure go together, because enjoyment is reached after studies, but studies and enjoyment go forward together. (Epicurus)
Cogito ergo sum.Penso therefore I am (Descartes)
There is nothing entirely within our power, if not our thoughts. (Descartes) The philosophy must necessarily be to your sunset, toward science, which, however, is the way in which the philosophy he lives today. Everyone can see that philosophy, global declines in scientific knowledge. (Severino)
The new opinions are always suspected, and usually contrasted, for no other reason except the fact that they are not already common (John Locke)
The Death of Socrates and the crucifixion of Christ are part of the great traits of humanity. (Arthur Schopenhauer)
All that can be said can be said clearly, and what we can not speak, perhaps it would be better to remain silent rather than speak to vanvera.Infatti my work consists of two parts: what I wrote is more of everything I did not write that constitutes the most impostante. (Wittegenstein)
There is no reason to expect that the kings philosophize or philosophers become kings, nor is desire, because the possession of power corrupts the free judgment of reason. But a king or a sovereign people do not leave to silence the class of philosophers, but leave to speak publicly, it is essential to some and to others for light on their business. (Kant)
Always act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will become a universal law, considering humanity whether in your own person and in that of every alrto, always aim never as a mere means. (Kant)
There is always a grain of madness in love, as there is always a grain of logic in the madness. (Nietzesche)
The philosophy is a practice, not a theory, something you do, not something you say. " (Ermanno Bencivenga)
The greatness of man is measured by what to look for and the insistence with which he is looking. (Heidegger)
When you teach, teaches at the same time to doubt what you teach. (Ortega y Gasset)
The more we raise, the smaller we appear to those who can not fly. (Nietzsche)
Today an expert is one who knows more and more about less and less until you know everything about nothing. (Max Weber)
The experience of truth is given only in dialogue, in the dialectic of question and answer that feeds the circular movement of understanding. (Gadamer)
The trouble with the world is that the stupid are strasicuri and the intelligent are full of doubt. (B. Russell)
Freedom should be looking for, ch 'is dear to you as someone who life for her refuses. (Dante)
Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains. (Rousseau)
One can conceive of philosophers like people who make extreme efforts to experience up to the height that 'man can rise. (Nietzsche)
Want to get true freedom? Make yourself a slave to philosophy. (Seneca)
Without an opponent virtue rots. (Seneca)
Wise to the whole Earth is open, because home to a 'beautiful soul is the whole world. (Democritus)
The greatness of man is measured by what to look for and the insistence with which he is looking. (Heidegger)
Human reason is beset by questions that can not be rejected, because they are assigned by the nature of reason itself, and which, however, can not even give an answer, because they are beyond all power of human reason. (Kant)
Death smiles at everyone, a man can do is smile back. (Marcus Aurelius)
Death should not be feared because we are there when you do not remember her and when she is not there we are. (Epicurus)
I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it. (Voltaire)
To discover the true objectivity of the world, man must not think of the world as a part of himself, but it must feel himself as a part of the world. (Abbagnano)
There is nothing entirely within our power, if not our thoughts. (Descartes)
If a man with part of the certainties end with doubts, but if you are content to begin with doubts, come to an end at some certainty. (F.Bacone)
Our dreams and desires are changing the world. (Karl Popper)
There will be a good government only when philosophers become kings or kings become philosophers. (Plato)
Audaces iuvat luck. (Virgil)
Beauty in things exists in the mind of the beholder. (Hume)
Remember that you are mortal born of nature and you've got a limited time, but with your reasoning on the nature risen six to infinity and eternity, and you've covered the things that are, that were and will be. (Metrodorus)
Everything except the madness frolic. Everything is worthy of rice except the laugh of everything. (Leopardi)
The man needs what he has in himself worse to achieve what is best there is in him. (P. Coelho).
If a man is kind to a stranger, it shows to be a citizen of the world, and his heart is not an island, separated from the others, but a continent that brings them together. (Francis Bacon)
The dream is the theater where the dreamer is at once both the scene, actor, prompter, stage manager, the manager, the author, the public and the critic. (Jung)
Who does not know the truth is only a fool, but he who, knowing it, calls it lie, is a criminal. (B. Brecht)
An eye for an eye ... and the world goes blind. (Gandhi)
The 'man is a cable stretched between the animal and the Superman. (Nietzsche)
An expert is one who knows more and more about less and less until you know everything about nothing. (Max Weber)
Learn it all, then you will see that nothing is superfluous. (Hugh of St. Victor)
The heart has reasons that reason does not know. (Blaise Pascal)
Who do you think is immortal, who does not think he dies. (Averroes)
The Church is exactly what Jesus preached against whom and against whom he taught his disciples to fight. (Nietzsche)
To think is to go beyond. (E. Bloch, "The Principle of Hope")
Maybe now the main goal is not to discover what we are, but to refuse what we are. We have to imagine and build what we might become. (M. Foucault)
The essence of optimism is not only to look beyond the present situation, but it is a vital force, the force of hope when others give up, the strength to hold your head high when everything seems to fail, the strength to endure failures, a strength that never leaves the future of their opponents, the future of the claims for itself. (Dietrich Bonhoeffer)
The camps are the laboratories where we experience the transformation of human nature [...]. So far, the belief that everything is possible seems to have proved only that everything can be destroyed. But in their efforts to put it into practice, totalitarian regimes have discovered without knowing that there are crimes that men can neither punish nor forgive. When the impossible has been made possible, it has become an absolute evil, unpunishable and unforgivable, that could not be understood and explained with evil motives of self-interest, greed, envy, resentment, and that therefore the anger could not revenge, charity bear, friendship, forgiveness, the law punish. "(Hannah Arendt)